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RN常用的计量单位

日期:2015-07-09 | 来源 :中国护士网 | 作者 :www.angel512.com |点击:

Abbreviation of Measures

gal or gals = gallons g = gram 
O, pt or pts = pints kg = kilogram (1,000g) 
oz or ozs = ounces mg = milligram (1/1,000g) 
fl.oz = fluid ounces  mcg or µg = microgram (1/1,000,000g) 
lb or lbs = pounds L or l = litre (or liter in US) 
st = stones cl = centilitre (1/100 L) 
gtts = drops ml = millilitre (1/1000 L) 
iu = international units µl = microlitre (1/1,000,000 L) 
m or min = minims meq or mEq = Milliequivalent  
hr = hour m = metre (or meter in US) 
min = minutes mm = millimetre (1/1,000 m) 
sec = seconds cc or cu.cm = cubic centimetres (1/1,000 L) 
ft = foot or feet dr = dram or drachm 
gr = grains sc = scruple 
t or tsp = teaspoon T or tbsp = tablespoon

Of General Interest 
• One litre of pure water weighs approx. one kilogram so 1cc of water weighs 1 gram.
• A steel paper clip weighs about 1 gram.
• "A spoonful" means heaped or rounded, with as much above the bowl of the spoon as in the spoon. Obviously, a measure of liquid is a level spoonful.

Liquid Metric Conversions 
1 gallon (gal)(US) = 3785 ml  1 gallon (UK) = 4546 ml  
1 pint (pt)(US) = 473.18 ml 1 pint (UK) = 568.26 ml 
16 fluid ounces (US) = 473.18 ml 20 fluid ounces (UK) = 568.26 ml 
8 fluid ounces (US) = 236.59 ml 10 fluid ounces (UK) = 284.13 ml 
4 fluid ounces (US) = 118.29 ml 5 fluid ounces (UK) = 142.07 ml 
1 fluid ounce (fl.oz)(US) = 29.57 ml 1 fluid ounce (UK) = 28.41 ml 
- - - - 
1cc = 1g = 1ml (approx) 1 teaspoon = 5 ml (approx) 
10 minims = 0.616 ml 1 tablespoon = 15 ml (approx) 
15 to 16 drops ( gtts ) = 1 cc = 1ml 1 drop = 1 minim approx 
Note:- Spoon and drop conversions should be regarded as approximations due to the different surface tensions and specific gravity of various liquids.


Solid Metric Conversions 
1 pound (avoirdupois) = 453.592 g  1/2 grain = 30 mg 
1 pound (apothecary) = 373.242 g  1/4 grain = 15 mg 
1 ounce (avoirdupois) = 28.35 g  1/8 grain = 8 mg 
1 ounce (apothecary) = 31.10 g  1/12 grain = 5 mg 
15 grains = 1 g  1/100 grain = 600 mcg 
10 grains = 600 mg 1/150 grain = 400 mcg 
7 1/2 grains = 500 mg 1/200 grain = 300 mcg 
5 grains = 300 mg  1/250 grain = 250 mcg 
1 1/2 grains = 100 mg  1/300 grain = 200 mcg 
1 grain = 64.79891 mg 1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds 
1 pound = 0.45 kilograms (kg)  1 stone = 6.35 kg 
1000 mcg  = 300 to 7000 iu (below) 1000 mcg = 1 mg 
1 scruple = 1.2 g 1 drachm = 28.8 g 
Note on International Units ( i.u. )
An old measurement of vitamin activity determined by biological methods as opposed to new measures that are determined by direct chemical analysis. 
Many health foods and supplements still use i.u. ( IU ). 
For Vitamin A, 1 i.u. = 0.3µg retinol, 3.6µg b-carotene, or 7.2µg other vitamin A carotenoids 
For Vitamin D, 1 i.u. = 0.025µg cholecalciferol 
For Vitamin E, 1 i.u. = 0.67µg natural a-tocopherol (different conversion factors are used for different forms of vitamin E) 

 

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Ratios and Percent Solutions  
1:100  = 1g/100ml [10mg/ml]  = 1% 
1:200  = 500mg/100ml [5mg/ml] = 0.5% 
1:1,000  = 100mg/100ml [1mg/ml]  = 0.1% 
1:5,000  = 20mg/100ml [200mcg/ml] = 0.02% 
1:10,000  = 10mg/100ml [100mcg/ml]  = 0.01%

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Calculation of Milliequivalents (mEq)
mEq = Weight (grams) / mEq Weight (grams)

Ion or Compound mEq W.(g) Ion or Compound mEq W.(g) 
Na+ 0.023 HC03- 0.061 
K+ 0.039 NaCl 0.0585 
Ca++ 0.020  KCl  0.0745  
Mg++  0.012 CaCl.2H2O 0.0735 
NH4+ 0.018 NH4Cl  0.0535  
Cl 0.0355 MgSO4.7H20  0.123 
Lactate  0.089 NaHCO3 0.084 
Acetate 0.059 Ca Gluconate 0.224 
Citrate 0.063 Phosphorus 0.031

For milliequivalent weights not shown, use the formula:-
milliequivalent weight (mEq W.) = Atomic Weight (g) / (Valence) x 1,000


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Drug Administration Times  
Standardised medication administration times should be followed as much as possible. The following table shows those hours of the day which are to be used as standardised times of medication administration. If the prescriber wishes the first dose to be administered before the earliest available standardised time then the prescriber should state "expedite" or "first dose now" with the drug order. 
In ICU's the first dose of a newly ordered parenteral antibiotic regimen should be administered within 2 hours unless specified otherwise by the prescriber. 

 

Ordered Time Hour(s) to be given 
QAM 08 
QD  08 
QHS 21 
QPM 17 
BID 08 17 
Q12H 08 20 
Q8H 08 16 24 
TID 08 12 17 
TID AC 07 12 17 
TID W/M 0730 1230 1730 
QID 08 12 17 21 
Q6H 06 12 18 24 
AC & HS  07 12 17 21 
PC & HS 08 13 18 21 
1 HR AC & HS 0630 1130 1630 2100 
1 HR PC & HS 0830 1330 1830 2100 
5 X's/day 06 1030 15 1930 23 
Q4H 04 08 12 16 20 24


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Common Terms and Abbreviations

Term or Phrase  Abbreviation Meaning 
ad ad to, up to 
ad libitum ad. lib. at pleasure 
ana a.a. of each 
ante cibos a.c. before meals 
aqua aq. water  
bis in die b.i.d. twice a day 
collyrium collyr. eye lotion 
cum c. with  
cum aqua cum aq. with water 
dentur tales doses d.t.d. give such doses 
dispensa disp. dispense 
et et and 
gutta, guttae gtt. drop, drops 
hora somni h.s. at bedtime 
in vitro in vit. in glass 
misce m. mix 
non repetatur non. rep. do not repeat 
oculus dexter o.d. right eye 
oculus sinister o.s. left eye 
omni die o.d. daily 
omni mane o.m. every morning 
omni nocte o.n. every night 
per os p.o. by mouth 
placebo placebo to please 
post cibos p.c. after meals 
pro re nata p.r.n. as the occasion arises 
quantum sufficiat q.s. sufficient quantity 
quater in die q.i.d. four times a day 
recipe Rx take 
semis ss _ one-half 
sine s,s without 
si opus sit s.o.s. if necessary 
ter in die t.i.d. three times a day 
trochiscus, torchisci troch. lozenge, lozenges 
unguentum ungt. ointment 
ut dictum ut dict. as directed

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Estimating Lean Body Weight
Lean Body Weight Calculation: Males 50kg + 2.3kg per each inch over 5 feet of height 
Females 45kg + 2.3kg per each inch over 5 feet of height 
In patients whose actual weight is > 20% over the above calculated ideal body weight, add 40% of the difference between the actual and the calculated ideal weights to the calculated ideal weight to arrive at a corrected ideal body weight. 
1kg = 2.2 lbs. 14 lbs. = 1 stone = 6.35 kg

Height Estimated Lean Body Weight 
(+) or ( - ) 2.3kg per inch over/under 5 feet tall  
(+) 50kg for men or (+) 45.5kg for women  
Imperial / metric  Males (kg)  Females (kg)  
4 ft 8 in / 142 cm  40.8  36.3  
4 ft 9 in / 145 cm  43.1  38.6  
4 ft 10 in / 147 cm  45.4  40.9  
4 ft 11 in / 150 cm  47.7  43.2  
5 ft 0 in / 152 cm  50.0  45.5  
5 ft 1 in / 155 cm  52.3  47.8  
5 ft 2 in / 157 cm  54.6  50.1  
5 ft 3 in / 160 cm  56.9  52.4  
5 ft 4 in / 163 cm  59.2  54.7  
5 ft 5 in / 165 cm  61.5  57.0  
5 ft 6 in / 168 cm  63.8  59.3  
5 ft 7 in / 170 cm  66.1  61.6  
5 ft 8 in / 173 cm  68.4  63.9  
5 ft 9 in / 175 cm  70.7  66.2  
5 ft 10 in / 178 cm  73.0  68.5  
5 ft 11 in / 180 cm  75.3  70.8  
6 ft 0 in / 183 cm  77.6  73.1  
6 ft 1 in / 185 cm  79.9  75.4  
6 ft 2 in / 188 cm  82.2  77.7  
6 ft 3 in / 191 cm  84.5  80.0  
6 ft 4 in / 193 cm  86.8  82.3  
6 ft 5 in / 196 cm  89.1  84.6  
6 ft 6 in / 198 cm  91.4  86.9  
6 ft 7 in / 201 cm  93.7  89.2  
6 ft 8 in / 203 cm  96.0  91.5  

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